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Papers On Canadian Studies
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Economic and Labor Responsibilities in Children in Rural Farm Families and Urban Working Class Children: Analysis of Articles by Parr, Sutherland and Bullen
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This is a 10 page paper discussing economic and labor responsibilities in children in rural farm families and urban working class children. Joy Parr’s chapter “Apprentice or Adopted” (1994) and Neil Sutherland’s chapter “The Working Lives of Modern Pioneers” (1997) tell of the work ethics, expectations, patriarchal control, family economic status, and gender role development in rural households and communities. Parr addresses the enterprising structure of families on farms which in addition to their gendered-role structure in which all members of families must contribute to the maintenance of the farm, also takes into account the position of immigrant children apprentices. While many farm children are unable to attend schools because of obligations on the farm, this is further diminished in regards to the immigrant children who have fewer educational opportunities than farm children. Sutherland’s work further argues the opportunities which are missed by rural children who are not always able to go to school because of work obligations on the farm. He argues that urban children, who do not have these same obligations, are therefore offered more educational opportunities and subsequent professional opportunities. John Bullen in his article “Hidden Workers: Child Labour and the Family Economy in Late Nineteenth-Century Urban Ontario” (1992) takes this argument one step further. While agreeing that rural children are at a disadvantage because of their labor obligations, so too are urban working class children who also live within family structures where every family member must contribute either in labor or wages in order to sustain the family lifestyle. In all cases, middle and upper class children who do not have the same labor obligations are given more educational, professional and social mobility opportunities in their stead. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
Filename: TJJParr1.rtf

Economic Review of Fishing and Trapping in Nova Scotia
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This 8 page report discusses the status of fisHING in Nova Scotia, Canada. Along with British Columbia on the Pacific coast, Nova Scotia has the largest fishing industry in Canada. Overfishing, stock depletion, international disputes over management and access, and a number of other issues, including the ecological health of the world's oceans have all combined to make fishing a complicated and highly regulated enterprise for eastern Canadians, as well as the federal government. Bibliography lists 9 sources.
Filename: BWnovsco.wps

Education in Canada: The Need for the Separation of Church and State
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This is a 7 page paper discussing the need for the separation of church and state in the educational system in Canada. Most provinces in Canada struggle with the incorporation of church and state in the educational system. Historically, the allowance for funding to religious based school systems can be traced back before Confederation and the Constitution Act of 1867. The Act required the public funding of Roman Catholics schools in Ontario. Despite the provincial funding of public and Catholic separate schools however, funding to school systems controlled by other religions has been denied; a practice which was deemed “discriminatory” by the United Nations in 1999. Funding of separate schools varies from province to province. In addition to the fact that “financial discrimination” is being practiced and can be argued to be in violation of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, recent studies have found that more than one educational system in a province is not cost efficient and by that reasoning alone should lead to the separation of church and state within the educational system. Private educational systems have also been found to not have the same provincial standards in regards to teacher qualifications and provincial exams among other inequities. Overall then, it can be argued that based on evidence of current discrimination, the need for the protection of the strength of the public school system, discrepancies in standards, democratic rights and the need for financial efficiency, there should be a separation of church and state within the educational system in Canada. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Filename: TJCancs1.rtf

Education Reform in Lithuania, Japan and Canada
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This is a 16 page paper on education reform in Lithuania, Japan and Canada. The paper includes an outline and summary/introduction as well. Within the last decade, the countries of Lithuania, Japan and Canada have seen a great many education reforms. While in some cases, there are similar characteristics and trends in the reforms, in other cases, the reforms are considerably different. Since its independence, Lithuanian education reform has focused a great deal on renewing the curriculum to do away with all of the Soviet ideologies, creating an educational system which is similar and competitive with the European market yet also allow for autonomy of institutions for research and education which they were denied in the Soviet era. Japanese reforms have led to a system where the teachers and students are less reliant on a standard and limited curriculum and instead has recently emphasized less stress within the educational environment, shorter school weeks and hours spent in school and more emphasis on “integrated learning” where students are taught how to learn. Within the last two decades in Canada, education reform has undergone several processes. Some of the earlier processes were similar to those within Lithuania and Japan in regards to an integrated curriculum, however many teachers felt these programs were not well supported or consistent across the territorial and provincial systems. In addition, most education “reforms” in Canada within the last decade have focused more so on cost reduction which has not only removed the teachers from the reform process but has also had little consideration for the impact of significantly reduced spending on the students and learning. Bibliography lists 16 sources.
Filename: TJedref1.rtf


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